Clean Energy

The project focuses on addressing the problem of milk waste by reusing it as a green catalyst to produce biodiesel. Spoiled or expired milk was used because it contains valuable components such as proteins and minerals that can be used as catalysts in the transesterification process to produce biodiesel.
The progress of the project depended on the following basic steps:
1. Casein extraction from milk waste: Expired or spoiled milk is collected and processed to extract casein. The extracted casein is then dried in an oven to prepare it for use as a catalyst.
2. Catalyst preparation and activation: The extracted casein is processed and activated by adding certain salts or chemicals. This step enhances the catalytic properties of casein, making it suitable for the transesterification reaction.
3. Transesterification process: An activated casein catalyst is used in the transesterification process, which involves reacting vegetable oils or fats with methanol in the presence of the catalyst to produce biodiesel and glycerol. Glycerol can be used in the production of cosmetics. The biodiesel is placed in a rotary evaporator to separate the solvent from the fuel and the biodiesel will be ready for analysis and quality inspection.
4. Catalyst recovery and reuse: After transesterification, the catalyst is separated from the reaction mixture and can be reused in subsequent biodiesel production cycles. This ensures the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of the process. It is also possible to reuse the extracted solvent and reuse it in the same process.
5. Use of analytical techniques and quality control: At all stages of the project, different analytical techniques such as SEM, EDX, XRD, FTIR, NMR, and GCMS are used to characterize the catalyst, monitor the transesterification reaction, and analyze the biodiesel product. Quality control is carried out to ensure the efficiency and purity of the biodiesel produced.
In conclusion, the project works to provide a sustainable solution for managing milk waste while at the same time contributing to the production of renewable biodiesel. By reusing milk waste and converting it into valuable catalysts and biofuels, the project addresses environmental concerns associated with the disposal of milk waste, reduces dependence on fossil fuels, and promotes sustainable energy practices. In addition, the project is characterized by the ability to create economic opportunities by producing materials of economic value from waste.

Overview of the issue and your approach: The increasing demand for dairy products in the countries leads to an increase in waste produced from dairy industries, including whey, sludge, expired products, and wastewater. These wastes pose a major threat to the environment and pose health risks to living organisms. Waste can be converted into carbonaceous materials and used as a catalyst for biodiesel production, reducing the cost of biodiesel production. Biodiesel, a renewable fuel, is being a focus due to its biodegradability and environmental friendliness. However, biodiesel production is expensive, with 60-80% of the cost related to production and feedstock oils. To reduce costs, cheaper raw materials like Jatropha curcas oil, palm fatty acid distillate, grease, animal fat, and waste cooking oil can be used. Scientists are now focusing on selecting suitable catalysts for effective transesterification, which can contribute to cost reduction and biodiesel sustainability. Heterogenous catalysts are the best solution, as they do not dissolve in the reaction mixture and can be easily recovered and regenerated. Biodiesel can be used as a sustainable fuel for various purposes, promoting innovation and technological progress in sustainable energy production and use.
The stakeholders in your project: The project benefits pharmaceutical, cosmetics, water treatment, and fuel companies. By using casein as protein in medicines and nutritional supplements, glycerin for cosmetic products. Activated carbon for water and air purification and producing biodiesel for fuel and energy companies. These companies can collaborate to promote sustainable practices, resource efficiency, and economic development, while preserving the environment and promoting the green circular economy.